Sand Casting Process

The sand casting process is used typically for larger parts and for small quantities of parts. Sand casting is capable of making fairly complex shapes using relatively inexpensive wood patterns.  Sand, containing a natural or synthetic binder, is packed around a wood pattern, the sand is then tamped down to provide the two-part mold with adequate strength. The pattern is then removed, leaving a negative form in the mold. 

Cavities can be produced in the sand casting by inlaying one or more cores in the mold. The two halves of the mold are clamped together ready for casting.

Our sand and face coat systems have been optimized to give superior surfaces for corrosion resistant alloys. 

A wide range of cobalt alloys, nickel alloys and stainless steel alloys can be poured in our modern Sand Foundry.  All castings produced can be finished to print in our Machine Shop.

Sand Casting Capacities

IS THE SAND CASTING PROCESS FOR YOU?

Sand casting is best for large components with thick cross sections. This process is capable of making fairly complex shapes using relatively inexpensive wood patterns. Our sand and face coat systems have been optimised to give superior surfaces for corrosion resistant alloys. If your component meets one or more of the following basic criteria, sand casting could be the correct process selection.

  • Low to medium volume requirements
  • Simple to medium part complexity
  • Component has thick cross section

Materials

  • Stellite Alloys
  • Tribaloy Alloys
  • Deloro Alloys
  • Nistelle Alloys
  • Stainless Steel Alloys
  • Other alloys available on request

Typical Sand Casting Components

Resin Shell Casting

The steel or aluminum pattern and runner are mounted on a flat steel plate, which is heated to a temperature that will cure the sand/resin mixture. The shell is stripped off and clamped against a flat or similarly moulded shell to form the mould cavity for the molten alloy, thus reproducing the pattern. For hollow components separately moulded cores are placed between the two halves of the mould before closing.

Complex moulds with integrated cores can be produced by the resin shell moulding process, allowing the production of parts with complex geometries. The resin shell process features comparatively good near-net-shape accuracies and good surface quality. Resin coated zircon sand is poured on to a heated pattern plate; the resin is cured and one half of a mould is thus formed. Two halves of a mould are then bonded together, ready for casting. 

Resin Shell Casting Capacities

IS THE RESIN SHELL CASTING PROCESS FOR YOU?

Resin shell casting is an economical approach for medium to large volume production of relatively simple shapes. This process achieves a more refined microstructure and higher hardness levels than regular sand castings making it advantageous for cutting tools and knives. If your component meets one or more of the following basic criteria, resin shell casting could be the correct process selection.

  • Medium to large volume requirements
  • Relatively simple shapes
  • Require refined microstructure
  • Require higher hardness

Materials

  • Stellite Alloys
  • Tribaloy Alloys
  • Deloro Alloys
  • Nistelle Alloys
  • Stainless Steel Alloys
  • Other alloys available on request

Typical Resin Shell Casting Components

Centrifugal Casting

Centrifugal casting is ideal for high quality cylindrical components. As the name implies, centrifugal force is employed to exert pressure on the molten metal as it is poured into a spinning mould resulting in a dense part with a fine uniform grain structure. The wall thickness of the part is determined by the amount of poured metal. The centrifugal force presses the molten metal against the inner wall of the mould, densifying the metal and thus reducing shrinkage porosity and gas related defects. The integrity and wear resistance of these structures make them exceptional where there is frictional wear. Centrifugal castings are supplied in a semi or finished machine condition. A variety of moulds are available for speedy pours and deliveries. 

Centrifugal Casting Capacities

IS THE CENTRIFUGAL CASTING PROCESS FOR YOU?

If your component meets one or more of the following basic criteria, centrifugal casting could be the correct process selection.

  • Your component is cylindrical in shape
  • Uniform grain structure required
  • Fine grain structure required

Centrifugal Casting Materials

  • Stellite Alloys
  • Tribaloy Alloys
  • Deloro Alloys
  • Nistelle Alloys
  • Stainless Steel Alloys
  • Other alloys available on request

Typical Components

  • Seaming rolls
  • Chucks
  • Bearings
  • Bushings
  • Sleeves

Powder Metallurgy

Powder Metallurgy  is a process for making parts from metal powder. A mixture of metal powder and a binder is pressed into a mould to form the shape of the finished part. This preform is then heated to a temperature just below the melting point of the alloy. During this sintering process the diffusion of metal atoms between the alloy particles produces strong bonds between the particles. The final product has the advantage of a very fine grain size. Powder Metallurgy produces fully dense pressed components and is very economic for high volume production of small simple shapes. This technology allows us to manufacture uniform microstructures, which are free of nonmetallic inclusions and defects. Powder Metallurgy components are proven to have outstanding wear resistance and mechanical properties and provide exceptional reliability needed for anything from aerospace bearings to industrial saw teeth.

Surface finish is typically 125 RMS, with dimensional control dependent on the part size and geometry. Components should weigh less than 0.5 lbs and have a maximum surface area of 2.5 in 2. A variety of shapes can also be extruded such as diamond, wedge, rectangular and circular sections up to 1" diameter and up to 40" long. These extrusions are excellent for hardfacing consumables, cutters and wear pads.

IS THE POWDER METALLURGY PROCESS FOR YOU?

If your component meets one or more of the following basic criteria, powder metallurgy could be the correct process selection.

  • High volume requirements
  • Simple shapes
  • Small parts

Powder Metallurgy Materials

  • Stellite Alloys
  • Tribaloy Alloys
  • Nistelle Alloys
  • Other alloys available on request

Powder Metallurgy Typical Components

  • Saw tips
  • Saw tipping rod
  • Balls & Seats
  • Spacers
  • Bushings
  • Fine diameter wire
  • Turbocharger components

Wrought Products

Our Stellite material is rolled into the form of plate, sheet and bar products. A fundamental feature of the forming process is the improvement in the properties of the wrought material, brought about by changes to the grain structure during plastic deformation and heat treatment. During the forming of Stellite® sheet and bar the orientation and size of the fibres are optimised and the material achieves higher strength than cast material of the same chemistry.
 
After forming, the sheet is cut into blanks of suitable sizes by, for example, water-jet cutting or laser cutting. These blanks are then processed into finished parts.

Our wrought products fabricating department is skilled at press forming, roll forming and shaping the Stellite wrought materials into finished components.

ARE WROUGHT PRODUCTS FOR YOU?

If your component meets one or more of the following basic criteria, wrought products could be the correct product selection.

  • Flat or bar stock
  • Half sleeve application
  • Preformed shape
  • High temperature part stability
  • Cutting application 

Wrought Products Materials

Stellite® Alloys are available in many different grades (chemical compositions) and several different processes or methods of manufacture.  These different processes include casting, powder metal, hardfaced deposit, and wrought.  The wrought or hot forging method of production gives the resulting material improved properties in the areas of:

  • Mechanical properties
  • Toughness
  • Wear resistance
  • Corrosion resistance

The following information describes the two wrought grades of Stellite - Stellite®6B (AMS 5894) and Stellite®6K

STELLITE® Alloy 6B

(Aerospace Material Specification AMS 5894)

When it comes to tough wear resistant materials with “guaranteed” mechanical properties STELLITE® 6B (AMS 5894) is in a class by itself. Unlike many other materials that sacrifice toughness for wear resistance STELLITE® 6B (AMS 5894) offers both.

The key is the extensive hot working processing of the material which transforms a brittle wear resistant ingot into tough wear resistant STELLITE® 6B (AMS 5894). With its excellent wear characteristics, hot hardness, good corrosion resistance and superior mechanical properties STELLITE® 6B (AMS 5894) has been the material of choice for the most demanding wear applications.

Whether your application involves high impact pulp agitators, critical directional drilling tools or aerospace components STELLITE® 6B (AMS 5894)can offer superior wear resistance and the mechanical properties needed to withstand the toughest of applications. When it comes to your equipment don’t settle for anything less, use STELLITE® 6B (AMS 5894).

STELLITE® 6B (AMS 5894) is stocked in standard mill forms of flat stock ranging from .031 " to 1" thick and round bar ranging from .312" to 4.0" diameter - special sizing available on request.

STELLITE® Alloy 6K

Stellite®6K has similar properties to Stellite®6B (AMS 5894), but is slightly harder and less ductile.  Stellite®6K is excellent for cutting or scraping applications such as knives or scraper blades.  Stellite®6K is a custom rolled material and can be produced to a gauge and sheet size uniquely suited to your application.

Stellite®6K is available in flat stock ranging from 0.045" to 0.375" thick.

Click here for additional Information on Stellite®6B (AMS 5894) and Stellite®6K

FINISHING

Our fabricated wrought products department is skilled at cutting, press forming, roll forming and shaping these wrought materials into finished components. In house services include Waterjet cutting, Laser cutting and complete machine shop.

Typical Components

  • Sleeves and bushings
  • Knives
  • Washers
  • Scrapers
  • Erosion shields